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The Life of a Maasai Moran - Research Paper Example The Maasai are a humble group of people who practice nomadism and derive their livelihoods from the animals they keep and hunting and gathering. Among the Maasai, the birth of a male child is a symbol of power. A man is only considered a true man when he sires a male child. The more the males sired the more power and authority and respect one earns from the members of the community (Lekuton 37). There are men who have been made chief of the community because having the highest number of male children. Such a manâ€™s opinion in affairs of the community is taken very seriously and any one who disobeys his command is punished severely. The Maasai believe that itâ€™s the Godâ€™s will to have male children and the more the male children the more God is happy with them and is blessing them (Barber 6). The male children are important because they protect the community and itâ€™s wealth from all forms of threat ranging from other neighboring communities to wild animals. The birth of a male child in the community is received as great news and calls for ceremonies that have been performed for many years handed over from one generation to the next. The ceremonies begin very early in the morning with the village elders meeting together and deciding on the name to be given to the child. The name is given based on the time of the year and events of axiological significance to the community happening as at that time of the year. The child could be born at a time when the community is preparing to go for war or during the rainy season, or dry season or many other significant periods. The name is settled on by the village elders on consensus and will be announced to the rest of the community at a time deemed appropriate by the village elders. This is followed by songs of praise to the father of the child as the community assembles at the assembly point. On such a day, all activities of the community are stopped and ceremonies take center stage. The women will all be congratulating the woman who gave birth at this point as others give and seek advice. Those women who give birth to girls and have no boys are advised by the mother of child on how to get a boy and those who have had many boys give advice to the fellow mothers on how to get more and more boys. It is to be noted that at this time the maiden girls are required to be present and will be responsible for all the singing and all the cooking and preparations for the ceremony. According to Saitoti and Galaty (87) a Maasai man is not allowed to perform any domestic chore. His duty is to take care of the communityâ€™s safety against all incoming threats. At exactly eight in the morning the Maasai Moran kill a bull chosen by the village elders and drain the blood. The father of the child pours some to the ground and takes a sip. This is done under close supervision by the eldest member of the community. It is believed that the ancestor are still living together with the community and oversee the overall well being of the community by blessing them with rain and good cattle herds. The blood has to be poured first to the ground so that the ancestors can have the first sip. They come first in each and every activity of the community. Forgetting to pour a sip to the ground before taking the blood is a grave mistake and is accorded a whole repentance ceremony. Once the father of the child has poured some to the ground and then taken a sip, the rest of the elders take each a sip of the blood
Components of atmosphere Essay The main components of atmosphere are almost invariant. However, the content of water vapor is an exception that it varies with the changing of location, season and time. Oxygen and water vapor plays a significant role on the processes of atmospheric corrosion. Therefore, atmospheric corrosion can be classified in the following three categories: Dry corrosion Damp corrosion Wet corrosion Component Percent/% Component Percent/% Component Percent/% Atmosphere 100 H2O. Components of atmosphere (Impurity excluded, 10? ) 2. 1 Dry corrosion In the absence of significant water vapor, many common metals develop films of oxide. In the presence of traces of gaseous pollutants, copper, silver and other non-ferrous metals undergo film formation which is known as tarnishing. The tarnishing of silver in air is well-known. Tarnishing by hydrogen sulfide may be retarded by moisture if present in very small amounts. 2. 2 Damp Corrosion Damp corrosion would occur only when the relative humidity reaches 70% which is considered generally as the critical value for the onset of corrosion. The precise level of critical humidity varies with the type of contaminants, such as dust and salt particles, and the composition of metals. For instance, in the presence of marine salts corrosion is stimulated at lower values of relative humidity. The difference between the damp and wet environment is very narrow and it is more representative of a climatic condition rather than the magnitude of corrosion. Damp environments promote the corrosion of most metals. Water saturated with dissolved gases, such as CO2, H2S and SO2, cause severe corrosion of iron and steels, copper, nickel, silver and other non-metallic materials and alloys. For example, silver loses its luster and develops a tarnished film of sulfide on coming in contact with H2S, and copper develops tints and becomes black. In agricultural areas abundance of ammonia, particularly during the rainy seasons, subjects copper fittings to seasonal cracking and causes serious damage to water distribution systems. 2. 3 Wet Corrosion This is the most frequently observed form of atmospheric corrosion, where the water layers or pockets are formed on the metal surface, and the metal surface remains constantly in contact with water. The rate of corrosion would depend on the solubility of the corrosion product. Higher solubility means a higher rate of corrosion, because the dissolved ions increase the electrolytic conductivity. In case of alternate dry and wet conditions, the dry corrosion product film may absorb moisture from the air which increases the rate of corrosion of the metal by bringing the moisture in contact with the metal surface. Patina formation on copper, such as brochantite, and corrosion of iron and steel structures are common examples of corrosion caused by wet atmosphere.